The company pays much lower base wages -- sometimes halfof what the competition pays hourly workers -- then uses weekly bonus cashpayouts as an incentive. And they are not small amounts, either. Employees canearn 100 percent, 200 percent, and more of their regular hourly wage, with nocap, according to the amount of quality steel produced by, or passed through, awork team on a shift.
It's a production-driven system that wouldn't work foreveryone. For non-union Nucor, however, it has worked since the 1960s, saysJames M. Coblin, vice president of human resources. "We have the highestproductivity of any steel mill in the United States in terms of tons peremployee or tons per hour. We have the highest-paid steelworkers on earth, andwe have arguably among the lowest labor costs per ton produced. So that's prettyphenomenal if you can have the highest-paid employees but the lowest laborcost."
The secret to motivating people is money, he says."If you give a bonus to somebody of 15 percent, of course they like it, or20 percent, even 25 percent, of course they love it. But if you give them abonus of 100 percent, you get their attention big-time, and when they startseeing 150 percent bonus or 160 percent bonus, they are focused on that bonus.And when they know it's not going to be changed, like ratcheting up the basewhen they really start producing or putting a ceiling on it ... they catchfire."
The average pay in the year 2000 for Nucor's steel millemployees was about $63,000, and many of those people were high school graduatesliving in small towns like Darlington, South Carolina; Jewitt, Texas; andWaterloo, Indiana, very small communities where a dollar goes a long way, Coblinsays.
In good times, when business is booming, every employee --from a receptionist to the CEO -- shares in profits. Conversely, during downtimes there's sharing, too. The company doesn't lay off employees, but shutsdown its production lines for one or two days a week. Salaried executives stillwork, but hourly employees aren't required to. About 80 percent of Nucor'semployees are on this production-incentive plan. Other employees also haveperformance-based compensation:
Department managers earn annual incentive bonuses based primarily on the percentage of net income to dollars of assets employed for their divisions. These bonuses can be as much as 80 percent of a department manager's base pay.
Professional and clerical employees not on other plans earn bonuses based on their division's net income return on assets.
Senior officers earn lower base salaries, with theremainder of their compensation based on Nucor's annual overall percentage ofnet income to stockholder's equity, which is paid out in cash and stock.
Coblin says the Nucor system is about giving high wages toaverage people for outstanding production, and about giving responsibility andauthority to lower-level employees. It's the worker who drives production -- andthe bottom line -- not the executives. That can be a tough concept forauthoritative managers and companies to grasp.
Another key to Nucor's success is the simplicity of itsincentive system, Coblin says. If every employee can understand and see how anincentive plan affects him each week, then it can succeed. If not, it won't workin the long term.
Beyond its bonus structure, Nucor also rewards employeeswith free dinners, jackets, and hats for outstanding production or safetyrecords broken. Service awards are handed out every five years. Employeesreceive one share of stock for every year at Nucor. Workers are essential to thecompany's success, and are stockholders.
It's that ownership connection that is key to employeeperformance, NAM's Eisen adds. She calls Nucor an extraordinary company."They are using cash to incent. Other companies use benefits to incent. Whois the winner? I think you have to look at your own workforce."
Workforce, June 2001, pp. 112-114 -- SubscribeNow!